Tajweed (The Correct Recitation of the Qur'aan)


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image002Why learn Tajweed:

In the first revelation Allah tells us to
  • Recite the book of Allah
In the second revelation Allah tells us tto
  • Recite the book of Allah correctly
In Surah Muzammil, Allah uses the word Tarteela, it means to recite the Qur’an:
  • Slowly
  • Calculated
  • In a basic rhythm
Meaning of words can be changed if recited or said incorrectly
  • Qul (say) may be pronounced as Kul (eat). {Say He is Allah the only one} (Surah Ikhlaas)– will be changed to – 'Eat He is Allah the only one.'
  • Wanhar (sacrifice) may be pronounced as Wanhar (scold). {Pray to your lord and make a sacrifice} (Surah Kawthar) – will be changed to – 'Pray to your lord and scold.'
  • Salaam (peace) may be pronounced as Saam (poison or death)
  • Akbar (greatest) may be pronounced as Akbaar (drums)
“If I quoted Snoop Dogg and said ‘Drop it while it’s cold’ you people would be annoyed and call me a fob. But how can we not feel annoyed when someone incorrectly pronounces a word of Qur’an?’
Something to remember:
  • I listen…I forget
  • I see…I remember
  • I practice…I learn
  • I teach…I master
  • The word Tajweed comes from the root word Jawwada
  • Meaning of Jawwada: to beautify
  • Meaning of Tajweed: to make our pronounciation of Quran better, perfect, as it was revealed.
  • Tajweed rules were formed 150 years after the Prophet’s death.
  • First sense to develop in humans is hearing.
  • For many years, people learned Tajweed just from listening and copying.

quran-beautiful-islamic-picturesListening to the Qur’aan being recited correctly is enough to soften even the hardest of hearts and Muslims and non-Muslims alike find it a deeply moving experience even if they do not understand what is being said. We feel this even more in Ramadhaan when we are in the Taraweeh prayers and we can really feel the difference if we go to a Masjid where the Tajweed rules of Qur’aan recitation are not being observed as they should. Every single Muslim has to recite Qur’aan in Salaah but many of us do not realise that reciting the Qur’aan correctly, observing the rules of recitation is not an advanced science for expert reciters alone, rather it is an obligation upon each and every one of us whenever we recite the Qur’aan.

What is Tajweed

The word Tajweed linguistically means ‘proficiency’ or ‘doing something well’. It comes from the same root letters as the word ‘Jayyid’ in Arabic (meaning ‘good’): Jeem, Waw and Daal. When applied to the Qur’aan, it means giving every letter of the Qur’aan its rights and dues of characteristics when we recite the Qur’aan and observing the rules that apply to those letters in different situations. We give the letters their rights by observing the essential characteristics of each letter that never leave it. And we give them their dues by observing the characteristics of each letter that are present in them some of the time and not present at other times.

The Qur’aan was revealed with Tajweed rules applied to it. In other words, when the angel Jibreel ('alyhis-salaam) recited the words of Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) he recited them in a certain way and he showed the Prophet (peace be upon him) the ways in which it was permissible to recite the Qur’aan. So it is upon us to observe those rules so that we recite it in the way it was revealed.

At the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) there was no need for people to study Tajweed because they spoke with what is now known as Tajweed so it was natural for them. When the Arabs started mixing with the non-Arabs as Islaam spread, mistakes in Qur’aan recitation started appearing, so the scholars had to record the rules. Now, because the everyday Arabic that Arabs speak has changed so much from the Classical Arabic with which the Qur’aan was revealed, even Arabs have to study Tajweed.

The Purpose of Tajweed

The Qur’an is the word of Allah, and its every syllable is from Allah. Its recitation must be taken very seriously. The purpose of the Science of Tajweed in essence is to make the reciter proficient in reciting the Qur’aan, observing the correct pronunciation of every letter with the rulings and characteristics which apply to each letter, without any exaggeration or deficiency. And so through this the reciter can recite the Qur’aan upon the way of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who received it from Jibreel who received it from Allah (swt) in the Classical Arabic dialect that it came down in.

Arabic letters each have a Makhraj – an exit or articulation point - in the mouth or throat from which they originate and they also each have Sifaat – attributes, or characteristics - particular to them. Knowing the Makhraj and Sifaat of each letter is an important part of Tajweed. Sometimes two letters have very similar exits which makes mixing them up easy. So if a person does not know the attributes of each letter there is a danger that he will change the meaning of the words in Qur’an recitation. Observing the rules of Tajweed in reciting protects the reciter from making mistakes in reciting the Qur’an.

The Ruling of Reading with Tajweed

Muhammad bin Al-Jazaree the great Qur’aan and Hadeeth scholar of the 9th Century (Hijri) says in his famous poem, ‘Al-Muqaddimah feemaa ‘ala qaari’ihi an yu’allimahu’ detailing the rules of Tajweed:

“And applying Tajweed is an issue of absolute necessity,

Whoever doesn’t apply Tajweed to the Qur’an, then a sinner is he.”

So he regarded it as an obligation and he regarded leaving it as a sin. And the majority of scholars agree that applying the Tajweed rules of Qur’aan are an individual obligation (Fard ‘Ayn) upon every Muslim who has memorised part of or all of the Qur’aan. That is because the Qur’aan was revealed with the Tajweed rules applied to it and the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited it back to Jibreel in that way and the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) read it in that way, so it is an established Sunnah.

And of the proofs that the scholars bring to show the obligation of Tajweed is that Allah says in the Qur’aan, the meaning of which is:
‘And recite the Qur’an (aloud) in a (slow and melodious) style (tarteela)’ (Surah Muzzammil, aayah 4)

Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said in the explanation of this aayah:

“At-Tarteel is Tajweed of the letters and knowing where to stop (correctly)”. [An-Nashr of Ibn Al-Jazaree 209:1]

And of the proofs also is that Allah says in the Qur’an, the meaning of which is: ‘Those who We have given the Book to, give it its right in recitation (recite it as it should be recited)’ (Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 121)

And of the rights of reciting correctly is reciting it the way it was revealed. There are various ahadeeth also showing us the importance of Tajweed. Umm Salamah was asked about the recitation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and she described it as a recitation:

‘Clearly-distinguished letter by letter’. [Tirmidhi]

Sa’eed bin Mansoor relates in his Sunan that a man was reciting the Qur’an to Abdullah bin Mas’ood and he recited “Innamas sadaqaatu lil fuqara-i wal masaakeen”, so Ibn mas’ood said:

“This was not how the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) recited it to me!”

So the man asked, “How did he read it to you oh Aba Abdir-Rahman?” So he said “Lil Fuqaraaaa-i wal masaakeen”, he elongated the word Fuqaraa and the knowledge of the different lengths of elongation (mudood) is also from the rules of Tajweed.

The scholars have divided the types of mistakes one might fall into when reciting the Qur’an into two types:

1. Clear mistakes and

2. Unobvious (hidden) mistakes.

The Clear mistakes must be avoided by all and to avoid them one must know the rules of Tajweed. If a person falls into the Clear Mistakes, this is considered a sin and Ibn Taymiyyah even regarded it undesirable for a Student of Knowledge (i.e. someone who knows Tajweed) to pray behind a person who makes Clear Mistakes in their Salaah. As for the Unobvious mistakes, then the ruling on them is lighter and the recitation of a person falling into this type of mistake is regarded as lacking in completeness and prayer behind such a person is sound.

The table below shows what type of mistakes fall under each category. As you can see, almost all areas of Tajweed are required to be applied by all Muslims.

Clear mistakes
Unobvious mistakes

Mistakes in words which are clear and inconspicuous, whether they change the meaning or not. Mistakes related to correct pronunciation. Scholars, and the ordinary Muslims should avoid these.

Examples of Clear mistakes:

• Changing one letter into another, or a short vowel (harakah) into another, (changing Fathah into Damma or the letter Qaaf into Kaaf etc)

• Not observing the elongations (Mudood) at all. Reciting them quickly.

• Not observing the rules with which to pronounce letters when they are next to each other (like not merging certain letters that should be merged and not clearly pronouncing those which should be clearly pronounced etc.)

•Making light letters sound heavy and heavy letters sound light

• Stopping or starting at an incorrect place so that the meaning is spoilt.

Mistakes which are associated with perfecting the pronunciation.

Known only by those who are experts in this field or study it in depth. Ordinary Muslims may not know these.

Examples of Unobvious mistakes:

• Not being totally exact with the elongation of letters: (Making the Madd shorter or longer by a ½ or even ¼ degree etc.)

• Not observing the attributes of each letter perfectly: (Slightly rolling the Raa’, or exaggerating the ‘N’ sound in Noon etc.)

Reciting the Qur’an melodiously

The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to recite the Qur’an in slow, measured, rhythmic tones as Allah had instructed him, not hurriedly, but rather

“He would recite a surah in such slow rhythmic tones that it would be longer than it would seem possible.” [Muslim, Muwatta]

He would stop at the end of each aayah [Abu Dawud]. He commanded people to recite in a beautiful voice in a pleasant melodious tone. He said, “Beautify the Qur’an with your voices [for a fine voice increases the Qur’an in beauty]” [Bukhaari] and he said, “He who does not recite the Qur’an in a pleasant tone is not of us.” [Abu Dawud]

Unfortunately all too often we find people reciting the Qur’aan quickly and without changing their tone and without any feeling. We should put all our efforts into reciting the Qur’aan with as much feeling as we can! Have you ever prayed behind an Imaam who read with feeling? Well the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Truly the one who has one of the finest voices among the people for reciting the Qur’aan is the one whom you think fears Allah when you hear him recite.”[Daarimi, Tabaraani]

And once when the Prophet (peace be upon him) complimented Abu Moosaa al-Ash’ari on the beauty of his recitation, Abu Moosaa said:

“Had I known you were there, I would have made my voice more pleasant and emotional for you.” [Bukhari, Muslim]

Let us remember, that the Qur’aan is the word of Allah. In it we find exhortations, warnings, glad-tidings, parables, stories of the past, commands and prohibitions. Aayaat to make us think, reflect, cry, fear, hope, love, fall down in prostration! How can we recite all of this without feeling!? When we recite an aayah of Qur’an we should imagine that we are trying to feel and convey the full message behind that aayah. Perhaps some of us don’t feel confident. I believe that this lack of confidence comes partly from not knowing the rules of Tajweed correctly and so fearing that we will make mistakes and partly from not understanding the meaning of what we are reciting. So let us work hard to remove these two obstacles by learning Tajweed and working towards learning Arabic.

Helpful Tips towards learning Tajweed

° You must find a Qur’aan teacher who has studied Tajweed to listen to your recitation and correct you. Tajweed cannot merely be learnt from books, because the movements of your mouth as well as the sounds are important and only a teacher can correct you and make sure you are applying the rules correctly. Sometimes local Masjids will run classes. Qur’aan recitation is a science which was passed down generation by generation through teachers not just books, with a direct line to the Prophet (peace be upon him).

° Find a book containing the rules of Tajweed and learn each rule little by little, applying it as you go along with the help of your teacher. There are many concise Arabic books and in English there are some books as well as tapes to help. Look for books with some drawings showing you how to pronounce each letter.

° Listen to Qur’aan tapes of reciters who recite very clearly, at a medium or slow speed (like Sheikh Hudhaify or Sheikh Muhammad Hosary) and try and notice them applying the different rules of Tajweed. Repeat after them while trying to apply the rules you’ve learnt. Try to copy their tone and melody as well and see how it changes as the meaning of what they’re reciting changes.

° Tajweed Poem: If you know Arabic you could memorise Ibn al-Jazaree’s poem which contains all the rules of Tajweed. You can get the poem on tape sung as a nasheed in Arab countries. You might find memorising the rules easy in this way.

° Try and apply the rules you learn to the Surahs you have already memorised and don’t become lazy about reciting correctly. You might have to revise the Surahs by looking back at them.

° Practice and repetition will make perfect inshaa' Allah: As Ibn al-Jazaree says in his poem about acquiring Tajweed:

‘And there is no obstacle between it (learning Tajweed) and leaving it,
Except that a person must exercise his mouth with it!’

May Allah help us all to give His Book its right when we recite it and make reciting it more beloved to our tongues than anything else. Aameen.

readQuranAn Arabic adage proclaims:

"The speech of the kings is the king of all speech."

So, can the excellency of the speech of the King of all kings - Allah Ta'ala - even be equated with man-made speech?

One of the many miracles of the noble Qur'an is that regardless of the number of times it is recited, one never gets tired nor bored with its recitation. Allah Ta'ala says in the noble Qur'an, {Indeed the believers are those who tremble with fear when Allah is remembered, and when the verses of the Qur'an are recited before them it increases their belief; and upon Allah they have complete trust.} (8:2)

One of the salient points mentioned in this verse is that when a believer recites the noble Qur'an in the correct manner, it increases his faith and belief in Allah. Reciting the noble Qur'an in the correct manner means to recite it with Tajweed.

What is Tajweed?

Tajweed means to recite every letter correctly, i.e. from its proper origin of pronunciation coupled with its stipulated attributes.

Allah Ta'ala says in the noble Qur'an, {And recite the Qur'an with Tarteel (in a slow pleasant tone and style).} (73:4)

When asked about the meaning of Tarteel, Ali (radhiallaahu 'anhu) replied,

'It means that the Qur'an should be recited with Tajweed and with due observance to the rules of Waqf (pausing or stopping at the end of the verse).'

Necessity of Learning Tajweed:

Since the Qur'an emphatically commands us to recite the Qur'an with Tarteel, we have to recite it with Tajweed. Tajweed is not like all other subjects which we are able to separate from the Qur'an but instead Tajweed and Qur'an work hand in hand. 

Due to the vastness of the Arabic language, any small mistake in pronunciation of a letter or word may change the meaning of that word. For example, the word 'Qalb' (with q) means heart, if read 'Kalb' (with k), it will mean a dog'. 

So just as how in any other language we learn pronunciation of letters and words, for example, in English we learn that 'ph' stands for 'f' (as in phone) and not pone. Similarly, in the

Arabic language, we also have to learn pronunciation of letters and words, which we term as 'Tajweed'. Some people read so much of the Qur'an but because they do not know the correct pronunciation of the letters, they change the letters, which then changes the words which eventually leads to the changing of the sentence and meaning of the Qur'an.

We should remember that from the time and generation of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wasallam) till now, no one has ever denied this fact that Tajweed is definitely important. It is only now in our generation that people have lost respect and forgotten the status of Tajweed. 

We get some people nowadays who spend hours and hours reciting the Qur'an thinking that they are getting and attaining great rewards. But because their pronunciation of letters is incorrect, a very big problem arises. It sounds very small when we say, 'I am only pronouncing a letter incorrectly.' But did this thought ever cross our minds that when a letter changes in a word, the word changes and if a word changes in a sentence then the whole sentence changes and eventually the meaning also changes.

The Qur'an is the word of Allah. If we change the word of Allah then Allah (ta'ala) will definitely get angry with us and take us to task. So from all this, we can see the importance of reading the Qur'an with Tajweed. 

May Allah give us the ability to read the Qur'an correctly so that we may earn the mercy of Allah (ta'ala).

qurandrawnFULL NAME: Ya’qoob bin Ishaaq bin Zayd bin ‘Abd Allah al-Hadhramee al-Basree (d. 205).

  1. He was the client of Hadramiyyeen.
  2. He was a taabi’ee (a successor of the Companions)
  3. He was among the ten celebrated Qurraa’.
  4. Ya’qoob was the Imaam of Qiraa’ah in Basrah.
  5. He was the author of many books.

qurandrawnFULL NAME: Yazeed bin al-Qa’qa’ al Makhzoomee al-Madanee (d. 130)

  1. He was born in Basrah
  2. He was one of the ten outstanding qurraa’
  3. He was the Imaam of Qiraa’ah in Madinah and known as “Al Qaaree”
  4. He was also a Mufti.
  5. He learned Qiraa’ah from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbaas and Abu Hurayrah and narrated Qiraa’ah from them
  6. He died in Madinah.

qurandrawnFull name: Al-Layth bin Khaalid al-Baghdaadee (d. 240)

- He was the most distinguished disciple of al-Kisaaee.

- He was regarded as an authority in Qiraa’ah.

qurandrawnFULL NAME: ‘Alee ibn Hamzah ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Asadi al-Kisaaee, Abul Hasan (d. 189AH)

      1. From Koofah of Persian origin.
      2. He was the client of al-Asad.
      3. He was an Imaam of language, grammar and qiraa’ah. He (rahimahullah) was not only an Imaam in the Qira’at, but he was also skilled and proficient in Nahw (grammar).
      4. He settled in Baghdaad and was appointed Mu’addib (teacher) of the Abbasid Caliphs Haaroon al-Rasheed and al-Ma’moon.
      5. Later he was upgraded as a close associate of the court.
      6. He was very fond of wearing one particular clock and this might  be the reason why he was known as ‘Al-Kisaaee’ When asked about his nickname (al-Kisa’ee), he said,
      ‘Because I entered into Ihraam (Hajj/’Umrah) dressed in a Kisaa’ (garment).’
      1. He contributed many books.
      2. He died in Rayy at the age of seventy.

      Imam al-Shaafi’i (rahimahullah) said:

      ‘Whoever wishes to delve deep into Nahw, then he’ll be like a child compared to al-Kisa’ee.’

      Ibn al-Anbar said:

      ‘They concurred that he (al-Kisa’ee) was the most knowledgeable of Nahw, leading in understanding the gharib (unique terms in language) and the foremost in having knowledge of the Qur’an (Qira’at etc).’

      Here is a very good article which mentions him and shows how he was also a linguist.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Khallaad bin Khaalid Abu ‘Eesaa al-Shaybaanee al-Koofee (d. 220)

      Died in Kufaa.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Abu Muhammad Khalad bin Hishaam al-Bazzaar al-Baghdaadee.

      - One of the ten prominent Qurr’aa (three qurraa’ were less popular than the seven).

      - Died in Baghdaad

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Hamzah bin Habeeb bin ‘Ummaarah bin Ismaaeel al-Zayyaat (d. 156)

      1. He was one of the seven prominent Qurraa’
      2. He was the client of Banoo Tameem.
      3. He was known for his ascetism and sound knowledge.
      4. Whenever he recited the Qur’aan, he left a good impression on the minds of people.
      5. He used to trade oil from Koofah to Halwan and cheese and almond from Halwan to Koofah.
      6. Many qurr’aa narrated his Qiraa’ah; prominent among them were:

      - Ibraahem Adham

      - Al Kissaee

      - Yahya bin Ziyaad al-Farraa’.

      qurandrawnMany recitors around the world have specialised in all ten recitations, some having done less, others more. But most people recite the Riwaayah Hafs ‘an ‘Aasim, with its chain going back to the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).

      FULL NAME: Hafs bin Sulaymaan bin al-Mugheerah al-Asadi (d. 180 AH)

      1. He was a prominent Qaaree of Kufah.
      2. He was a cloth merchant.
      3. From amongst the disciples of ‘Aasim, he was the most learned in the qiraa’ah of ‘Aasim.
      4. He Qiraa’ah was most popular in Makkah, Baghdaad and Koofah.
      5. Even today it is extremely popular.
      6. The printed Qur’aan bears the qiraa’ah narrated by him and has been given preference over the rest of the qiraa’at.

      FULL NAME: Aboo Bakr bin ‘Ayyaash al-Asadee al-Nahshalee (d. 193)qurandrawn

      1. He presented the recitation of the whole Qur’aan to A’asim three times.
      2. He was a learned scholar who taught many people Qiraa’ah.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: ‘Aasim bin Bahdalah Abee al-Najood al-Koofee (d. 127).

      1. He was from the seven prominent Qurraa’.
      2. ‘Aasim Ibn Abee Najood was an eminent recitor of Kufa and was in the time of Imam Abu Hanifah. Imaam Abu Hanifah resided between Kufa and Baghdad. Imaam ‘Aasim died in 127AH, Imaam Abu Hanifah died in 150AH.
      3. Imaam ‘Aasim taught for years in the Masjid, so much so that he became famous and people from all around the world came to learn and study from him.
      4. Hafs was the step-son of ‘Aasim. Although ‘Aasim had many students, Hafs and ‘Aasim were the most famous (most, if not all, of the Imaams of the recitations have 2/3 famous students which spread their way of recitation.)
      5. Today the majority read the riwaayah of Imaam hafs through the tareeq of Imaam Ash-Shaatibee.
      6. He was blessed with a melodious voice and people were spellbound whenever they heard his Qiraa’ah.
      7. Many scholars narrated his qiraa’ah. Prominent among them were: Ibn Taghlab, Hafs bin Sulaymaan, Hammaad bin Yazeed and Abu bakr bin ‘Ayyaash.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Aboo ‘Amr ‘Abd Allah bin Ahmad al-Fihree al-Dimashqee (d. 245)

      1. He was the leader of Qurraa’ in Syria and the Imaam of the Damascus central Masjid.
      2. He was he author of books on ‘Ilm al-Qiraa’ah.

      FULL NAME: Aboo al Waleed al-Salamee Hishaam bin ‘Ammaar bin Naasir bin Maysarah (d. 245).

      1. He was a learned scholar who made an immense contribution not only in the qir’aah but also in the narration of Hadeeth and Fatwaa.
      2. He was an imam of Damascus and the khateeb (lecturer) and their recitor.
      3. He was born in the year 153 Al-Hijarah, and died 245 Al-Hijarah.
      4. He mastered this way of reading from Ibn ‘Aamir through an imam who read to and was approved in it from Imam Ibn ‘Aamir.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: ‘Abdullah Abu Imraan al-Yahsoobee (d. 118).

      1. He was nicknamed Abu ‘Imraan.
      2. Ibn ‘Aamir was born in the year 21 Al-Hijarah, and some say 8 Al-Hijarah.
      3. He became a leader of recitation in Sham and was a great imam and a noble taabi’ –one of those who met up and knew some of the Sahaabah.Therefore, he was the religious leader of the people of Syria.
      4. He was appointed the chief judge of Damascus and Imaam of the central Masjid (the Umawee mosque) of Damascu and the leader of the recitors.
      5. He was very learned and one of the seven prominent Qurraa’.
      6. The Caliph ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Azeez also recognized his authority.
      7. A large number of people benefited from his qiraa’ah.
      8. Yahya bin al-Haarith, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan bin ‘Amr and Khallaad bin Yazeed were the prominent qurraa’ who narrate his qiraa’ah.
      9. He died in Damascus in the year 118 Al-Hijarah, may Allah be merciful to him.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Saalih bin Ziyaad Abu Shu’ayb al-Soosee (D. 261 AH).

      1. He was a famous Qaari’.
      2. He learnt the Qiraa’ah of Aboo ‘Amr from Aboo Muhammad al-Yazeedee.
      3. He died in the year 261 Al-Hijrah close to the age of 90.
      4. There is little written about him in the biographies of the qurraa' (recitors). 

      qurandrawn FULL NAME: Ibn ‘Umar ‘Abd al-Azeez Abu ‘Umar al-Azdi al-Baghdaadi (d. 240).

      1. He was born in the year 150 Al-Hijara in Ad-Dur, which is located close to Baghdad.
      2. He was known as Abu Umar
      3. He was blind
      4. He was a distinguished scholar of his time
      5. He was the Imaam of the recitors in his time and is the first one to accumulate all the different qira’aat.
      6. He was an authority on qiraa’ah.
      7. He was the first scholar who collected different Qiraa’aat.
      8. He died in the year 246, may Allah be merciful to him.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Zabbaan bin ‘Ammaaar al-Tameemee al-Maazinee al-Basaro (d. 153 AH)

      1. He was one of the authorities in the Arabic language.
      2. He was one of the seven prominent Qurraa’.
      3. Abu ‘Amr Al-Basree al-Mazinee was born in the year 68 Al-Hijarah, and read in Basra, al-Kufah, Makkah, and Al-Medinah.
      4. He was born in Makkah, brought up in Basrah and died in Koofah.
      5. He had the most Shuyookh of all the Qurraa’ of the seven ways of recitation.
      6. Abdullah Ibn Katheer was one of his Shuyookh, and he heard Anas bin Maalik and others.
      7. Abu ‘Amr was known for his honesty, ascestism and scholarship.
      8. During his lifetime, his qiraa’ah became extremely popular in Hijaaz, Syria, Egypt and Yemen.
      9. The prominent narrators of his qiraaah were: Abu Zayd al-Ansaari, Asmaaee, Isaa bin Umar and Yahya al-Yazeedee.
      10. Two distinguished recitors who promoted his qiraa’ah were: Hafs al-Dauri and al-Soosi.
      11. In Sudan and Hadhramowt (Yemen) they recite the Riwaayah of Hafs Ad-Daaramee, who related from Imaam Abu A’mr Al Basaree.
      12. He died in Al-Kufah in the year 154 Al-Hijarah, may Allah be merciful to him.

      Al-Imam Abu Amr passed on this famous way of recitation to Yahya Al-Yazeedee.  Imam Yahya then passed it on to the two known raawee of this way of recitation: Abu ‘Amr Ad-Dooree and Abu Shu’ayb As-Soosiyy.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Muhammad al-Makhzoomi (d 291 AH).

      1. He was born in the year 195 Al-Hijarah and died 291 Al-Hijarah.
      2. He was nicknamed Qunbul.
      3. He narrated the qiraa’ah of al-Bazzi.
      4. Many people came to him from different parts of the world to learn the Qiraa’ah.
      5. The shuyookh of recitation in the Hijaaz area took the Qur’an through him.
      6. He remained an authority on the Qiraa’ah until he died in Makkah.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Bazzi (d. 250)

      1. He was born in the year 170 Al-Hijarah and died 250 Al-Hijarah.
      2. He was one of the most distinguished disciples of ibn Katheer and remained an authority on Qiraa’ah in Makkah until his death.
      3. He was the Qaari and Mu’addhin of Masjid al Haram, the sacred mosque.
      4. He was a teacher of research and verification.
      5. The reciters of Mekkah at his time learned from him.
      6. He was originally from Persia
      7. He died in Makkah.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Abu Ma’bad, ‘Abd Allah ibn Kathee bin Al-Mutallib Al-Qurayshi al-Daaree al-Makki (d. 120 AH)

      1. He was born in the year 45 Al-Hijara
      2. He knew some of the Sahaaba such as Abu Ayub Al-Ansaari and Anas bin Maalak and others, so he is of the Taabi’een.
      3. He read the complete Qur’an to Abdullah Ain As-Saa’ib and was approved by him and others.
      4. One of the seven prominent authorities on the qiraa’ah.
      5. He was born and died in Makkah and was regarded as the Imaam of Qiraa’ah in Makkah.
      6. He was a tall person with a fair complexion.
      7. He possessed a command over the Arabic language.
      8. He was famous for his eleqouence and fluency.
      9. Many scholars learnt Qiraa’ah from him.
      10. Ibn Katheer was known to be have a tranquil disposition and qahhaar.
      11. Imaam Ash-Shaaf’iee read the recitation of Ibn Katheer.
      12. He died in the year 120 Al-Hijara, Rahimahu Allah.

      The recitation of Ibn Katheer has two raawees, al-Bazzee and Qunbul, and both of them took the reading from an in between link, not directly from Imam Ibn Katheer himself, but from a mastered reciter who took the reading from Ibn Katheer.

      qurandrawnFULL NAME: Uthmaan ibn Sa ‘eed Al-Qibtee al-Misree.

      • He was born in Egypt in 110 AH.
      • Imaam Warsh had travelled from Egypt to Madinatul Munawarrah. He stayed in Madinah for a long time, so as to learn from Imaam Naaf’i.
      • He was known as “Warsh” because of his fair, reddish complexion and blue eyes.
      • He was fond of wearing short clothes and resembled al-Warshaan – a famous bird.
      • Naafi’ called him “Warsh” out of love.
      • He was gifted with a melodious voice, and his recitation always captivated the listeners.
      • He had a student by the name of Al Azraq who finished the Qur’aan 60 times with him before Imaam Warsh granted him the permission to spread this Riwaayah. Therefore, Imam Warsh recited to Imam Naafi' a number of complete recitations of the Qur'an and then returned to Egypt and taught people there for a long time. He became a distinguished authority on Qiraa’ah during his time in Egypt.
      • This riwaayah is prevalent in North Africa, Andulus, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Nigeria, parts of Libya from the tareeq (way/method) of  Al Azraq, which is the tareeq of Imaam ash-Shaatibi.


      FULL NAME: ‘Eesaa bin Maynaa bin Wardaan bin ‘Eesaa al-Madani [d. 835 AH]

      • He was born in 120 Al-Hijara and died 220 Al-Hijara in Al-Medinah.
      • He was the client of Banoo Zahrah
      • was nicknamed Aba Musaa
      • He was the stepson of Naafi’.
      • He was of Roman heritage.
      • He was known as “Qaaloon”, which in Roman means ‘excellence, good’ because of his excellence in Qiraa’ah [Recitation]. His Sheikh, Imam Naafi’, nicknamed him Qaloon because of the quality of his qira’ah.
      • He was born and died in Madinah.
      • He remained an authority on Qir’aah until his death.
      • He learned this science from Naafi’ by associating closely with him for many years, continuously sitting and learning from him. Until Imaam Naaf’i told him that that this time period was sufficient for him and that he was granted permission to sit near one of the pillars of the Prophet’s Masjid and teach (as was the practice of the scholars.)
      • Although he was deaf and could not even hear a horn, but if someone recited the Qur’an to him, he could hear, he was also able to deduce mistakes by watching the mouth of the reciter.
      • Some biographies say the deafness came when he was older, but others mention it as if he was always deaf, and Allah knows best.
      • Qaaloon is recited in Tunisia, Libya and some parts of Algeria.

      mushafblueAmong those who played an actual role in the formation of the personality of Imaam Maalik ibn Anas were esteemed teachers, who are known by all those who have studied the life of this unique Imaam. In particular, they include the "two Naafi's", each of whom had a laudable effect on Imaam Maalik, so much so that he never forgot them.

      The first was the outstanding faqeeh and reliable transmitter of hadeeth, Naafi' ibn Sarjis Abu 'Abdullah ad-Daylami, who died in 120 AH according to one statement, the same year that Malik reached the age of 47. This Naafi' ibn Sarjis, according to Ibn Hazm al-Qurtubi, was one of "the people of fatwas." Those who deal with hadeeth say, "The soundest of chains Malik from Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar." This chain is called "the golden chain" by those who deal with this science.

      This is why I have briefly indicated that Malik maintained this particular close connection to Naafi' as the biographers of Maalik clearly state. Maalik joined him very early on; he relates,

      "I used to go to Nafi', the freed-slave of Ibn 'Umar, while I was still a lad. He came down to me from a ladder of his – and his slave guided him after he went blind – and went from his house at Baqi' to the Mosque of the Prophet, where I would ask him questions and hear ahaadeeth from him."

      Despite this high position which Naafi' ibn Sarjis had with the rest of his fellow Madinans and despite the large amount which Malik ibn Anas obtained from him, as is indicated when he said,

      "When I listened to the hadith of Nafi' b. Sarjis, from Ibn 'Umar, I did not care for anyone else (i.e. didn't  need to learn from anyone else) except for him, above anyone else."

      Malik only related about 80 hadiths from him in his Muwatta', with some dispute over the exact number.

      But the Naafi' about whom we intend to speak is the second Naafi', Naafi' ibn Abi Nu'aym the recitor (al-Qari') who died only about ten years before Malik. Among his contemporaries were Isma'il ibn Ja'far, 'Isa ibn Wardan, and Sulayman ibn Muslim ibn Jammaz, and all of them took recitaition from Imam Naafi' by way of both reading and listening.

      Malik learnt recitation and hadith from Nafi'

      When people relate from Naafi' ibn Abi Nu'aym, they relate from the Qari' (the "Reciter") since from this is his fame primarily and before everything else. In fact, he was one of the seven recitors who have a recognised recitation (qiraa'ah). According to what Abu Qurra ibn Tariq reports, he studied recitiation with seventy of the Tabi'oon, but was also interested in hadith. Ibn 'Adi reports to us that Nafi' left us a text of a hundred hadiths of Naafi' from al-A'raj, as he left another text of more than a hundred hadiths from him from Ibn az-Zinad from al-A'raj, and he also left us about fifty hadiths in at-Tafariq. Those who are very devoted to this science do not know of a single munkar hadith from him.

      Perhaps an opponent might ask: "If Naafi' was also a relator of hadiths as you state, then why do we not see any tradition in Maalik's Muwatta where he mentions hadith which might have been related from him?" I say: perhaps that refers to something which was known by them in the second century: A MAN MAY BE ONE OF THE GREAT FUQAHA' AND NEVERTHELESS, HIS HADITH ARE ABANDONED. Then I ask: was there not Ibn Hurmuz, i.e. Abu Bakr ibn Yazid al-Asamm, d. 148 AH, one of the great fuqaha' and one of those whose company Imaam Maalik kept for years? In spite of that, we practically do not find a single hadith in the Muwatta' of Malik which was taken from Ibn Hurmuz although he did not leave an opportunity to praise him. He often said,

      "This is what I found the people of knowledge in our land had," or says, "The matter with us is like that,"

      and he is referring Ibn Hurmuz and Rabi'a ar-Ra'iy ibn Abi 'Abdu'r-Rahman Farukh from whom Malik has twelve related hadiths, musnad and mursal despite the length of time he kept to him.

      Malik's respect for the opinions of his teacher Nafi'

      Although Malik was, as is not hidden from anyone, the possessor of precise opinion which did not err, he did not announce his opinion in a case in which it was known that his teacher Nafi' had an opinion in it. For instance, Abu Sa'id 'Abdu'l-Malik ibn Qurayb al-Asma'i asked him about the basmala and Malik replied,

      "In any knowledge, question its proper people. Naafi' is the Imam of the people in recitation."

      Maalik would not have an opinion different from the opinion of the one who prayed in the mosque of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for sixty years without cessation, during which he was not opposed by any of the recitors of the Tabi'un, even though this spanned over such a lengthy period of time.

      Naafi' is the Qur'an-Reciter of Madinah without dispute

      Imaam Naafi' recited to the people in Madinah for a long time, about seventy years, and he was the leader of the recitors in this blessed city, which is the city of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. People would specifically go to him in order to learn the recitation of the Qur'aan.

      The recitation for which Imam Naafi' is famous and which Imam Malik related from him, by way of both reading and listening, was closely adhered to by the people. It is with this recitation that we, in Morocco, recite the Qur'aan. We recite it by one of the two transmissions from him, which is the transmission of Warsh. That is how we are famously known to be in Morocco, agreeing in the best possible manner with the 'amal (action) of the people of Madinah in all our activities of the deen, both in acts of worship and behaviour.

      After the Tabi'oon, Imaam Naafi' was an Imaam in recitation for hundreds of his students, who included Imaam Maalik ibn Anas. He is a noteworthy student of Imaam an-Naafi' as he took this recitation while knowing of the existence of recitations which followed the traditions of past Imams.

      The recitation of Nafi' is Sunnah and there is nothing strange about that

      Sa'id b. Mansur reported to us that he heard Maalik ibn Anas say,

      "The recitation of the people of Madinah is Sunnah."

      He was asked, "The recitation of Naafi'?" He replied,


      Al-Layth ibn Sa'eed said,

      "I went on Hajj in 113 A.H. and the Imaam of the people in recitation in Madina was Naafi'."

      'Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said,

      "I asked my father, 'Which recitation do you prefer?' He replied,

      "The recitiation of the people of Madinah.'"

      It is not strange that the recitiation of someone who saw the Noble Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in a dream in which he was reciting into his mouth, should be a followed sunnah.

      Abu 'Amr ad-Dani related to us, "A man among those who learned recitation with Nafi' said, "When Nafi' spoke, the fragrance of musk could be smelt from his mouth. I said to him,

      'Abu 'Abdillah! Do you use perfume whenever you sit to recite to the people?'

      He replied,

      'I do not touch perfume, but I saw in a dream that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was reciting into my mouth and from that moment I have smelt this fragrance from my mouth.'"

      Al-Musayyabi informed us, "It was said to Nafi',

      'How resplendent your face is and how handsome your physique!'

      He replied,

      'How could it not be when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, breathed on me and I recited the Qur'an (i.e. in my dream).'"

      mushafblue He is ash-Shaykh al-Qurraa’ wa al-Muhadditheen, wa al-Imaam Ahl al-Adaa’ wa al-Mujawwideen, Shaykh ad-Dunyaa fee al-Qiraa’at wa al-Tajweed, al-‘Allaamah al-Haafidh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Yusuf ibn al-Jazari; Shams al-Deen Abu al-Khayr al-Dimishqi ash-Shaafi’i (rahimahullaah).

      He was born in Damascus (Syria) in a place called Khatt al-Qassaa’een, on the night of al-Jumu’ah, 25th Ramadhaan 751AH, after Salaat at-Taraweeh.

      The Imaam describes himself in his famous nadhm (poem) in ‘Ilm at-Tajweed (Science of Tajweed), al-Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah (al-Muqaddimah feemaa yajibu ‘alaa qaari’ al-Qur’aan an-ya’lamah) as ‘Imaam al-Jazari’. ‘Jazari’ is a location in the Kurdistan/Turkmenistan/Iraq region. He belongs to a place called Ibn -‘Umar and the ‘ulamaa say that he has Kurdiy asl (Kurdish origins).

      Imaam al-Jazari’s father was a taajir (a businessman) and Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta'aalaa) had not granted him any children for a period of 40 years. So his father decided to go and perform al-Hajj, where he went and drank from the water of Zam-Zam and made du’aa to Allah to give him a child who would become an ‘Aalim. And so Allaah accepted this du’aa and granted him with a son, who became the great Imaam ibn al-Jazari.

      He grew up in Damascus, where he completed memorising the Qur’aan by the age of 13 years, and he began leading as-Salaat at-Taraweeh at the age of 14 years. He was from a wealthy family. He was described as being very light in his complexion and very eloquent in his language.

      He acquired his knowledge from various places including Shaam (Syria), Misr (Egypt) and Hijaaz (Makkah/Madinah). The Imaam studied the Qiraa’aat ifraadan (which means he recited one khatmah for each Qiraa’ah e.g. one khatmah for Warsh, one khatmah for Hafs etc) and also jam’an (which means he completed a khatmah, combining the Qiraa’aat). He studied many books including the famous at-Tayseer of Abu ‘Amar ad-Daani and also ash-Shaatibiyyah of Imaam ash-Shaatibi. He was not just a scholar in Qiraa’aat but also other ‘Uloom (Islamic Sciences) such as Hadeeth, Fiqh etc.

      quranpicgreenHis teachers include:

      • Shaykh ‘Abdul-Wahhaab ibn as-Sallaar
      • Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ibraahim at-Tahhaan
      • Shaykh Ahmad ibn Rajab
      • Shaykh Abu al-Ma’aalee ibn al-Labbaan
      • Imaam al-Jundi
      • Imaam as-Saa’igh
      • Imaam al-Baghdaadi
      • Imaam al-Qarawee

      Imaam al-Jazari was appointed as a Qaadhi (Judge) of Damascus and also Shiraaz in Iran. He built two schools called Madrassah al-Qurra’ in these places. He then sat in Masjid Bani Umayyah, al-Jami’ al-Amawee underneath al-qubbat an-nasr (the Dome of the Eagle), and after his teacher ash-Shaykh as-Sallaar passed away, he took the position of teaching the people from that place.

      He passed away in the year 833AH and is buried in Shiraaz (Iran).


      To recite the Qur’aan with tajweed is in fact an implementation of Allah’s command. Allah ('azza wa jall) says, “And recite the Qur'ân (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style.” [Qur’aan [73]:4]

      Women today, as in the past, have not lagged behind in serving this science. Around the world we see women ardently working to teach themselves, their children and their community how to correctly pronounce and recite the words of their Creator. Some have done so by teaching in masaajid and schools, others by writing and setting up websites.

      One such sister is Kareema Carol Czerepinski, an author of one of the most famous books on tajweed in the English language.


      Kareema Carol Czerepinski is the author of a series of three books called ‘Tajweed Rules of the Qur'aan’, one of the best books in the English language for learning tajweed rules. Although it is advised for those who would like to study the books to find a teacher who is proficient in tajweed, these books are an excellent addition to the bookshelf of any student of knowledge. Not only that, she also runs the famous website for tajweed: www.abouttajweed.com.

      American by nationality and upbringing, she is a teacher at ‘Daar Al Hudaa’ (a school in which sisters memorize the Qur’aan) in Jeddah. In Daar al Hudaa there is a three-year course in which these three books are taught. She mentions two of her teachers in the introduction to her book:

      *Al-Sheikh Dr. Ayman Rushdi Swayd
      *Ash-Sheikhah Rehab Shaqaqi

      As for Al-Sheikh Dr. Ayman Rushdi Swayd, he is an internationally renowned scholar in tajweed. He has a Ph.D. from Al Azhar and a Ph.D. from Umm al Quraa’ University, Makkah al Mukarramah. Further, he has many ijaazaat [licenses] from great scholars. For 20 years he has worked with ‘The Qur’aan Memorization Society’ in Jeddah. In the preface of the book he writes,

      “…My joy was then immense with the great work that the honorable sister, Al-Ustatha Kareema Carol Czerepinski did when she wrote a book on the first level of tajweed in the English language which is considered to be the international language of this age. She has closed a wide gap in the Islamic library with this work.

      Ustaathah Kareema has the capability to write on this subject. She has memorized the complete Qur’an and mastered its recitation in the way of Hafs ‘an ‘Aasim, by the way of Shatabiyyah, and then by the way of Tayyibat An-Nashr, receiving authentication [permission] in both ways, and now intends to learn the different ways of recitation [al-qiraa’aat], this is while she is of American nationality and upbringing. “This is Allah’s bounty, He gives it to whom He desires…”

      In her introduction, Sister Kareema Carol Czerepinski writes the reason behind why she compiled these three books,

      “This book started out, not as a dream of my own, but as a suggestion from his eminence Ash-Sheikh Dr. Ayman Rushdi Swayd, may Allah extend his life, increase his good deeds, and make him of the companions of the highest Paradise. He suggested that I write a tajweed book in English, using the computer. I was teaching a class in tajweed for a group of non-Arabs and realized that the need for a complete textbook in English in tajweed was very necessary. My husband, may Allah reward him with Al-Firdaws, bought a computer, and the task began. The book has been in the formative stages for the last three years. It has been used as text for the classes at Dar Al-Huda Qur’aan School in Jeddah, and editing has been done every year…”

      Darrussalaam have scanned a few pages of the book and converted it into a PDF file:

      Download (right click & "save target as")

      Please be patient as the document below loads, if you'd like to view it before downloading.


      May Allah ('azza wa jall) reward her and those who helped her with His abounding mercy and grace.

      Certainly He is the All-Able, the All-Hearer. Aameen.


      After Umm Al-Sa'ad completed her memorization of the Qur'aan at the age of 15 she went to the Shaykhah Nafeesah bint Abu Al-Alaa, who was known as "The Shaykhah [woman scholar] of her time" to request from her to learn the 10 Qira'aat (recitations). Nafeesa agreed on an peculiar condition; that Umm Al-Sa'ad never marry. She used to refuse to teach girls because they would marry, become busy, and neglect the Quran. 

      What was even more amazing was that Umm Al-Sa'ad accepted the condition from her Shaykhah who was known for her strictness and harshness against those whom she did not feel were proper for this honorable task. But Umm Al-Sa'ad was encouraged by the fact that her Shaykhah herself had never married, even though there were many of the great scholars who had sought her hand, and she died in that state while in her eighties, having secluded herself to the Quran!

      Umm Al-Sa'ad said,

      "It is from the blessings of my Lord that anyone who has obtained an ijaaza [license] in the Quran, in any Qiraa'ah, in Alexandria either received it directly from me (munaawala) or from someone whom I had given an ijaaza to."

      And what proved her unique status was that she was the only woman to whom reciter and huffaadh [those who had memorizeed the Qur'aan] of the Qur'aan would travel to receive ijaaza in the ten qira'aat [recitations].

      Umm Al-Sa'ad Ali Najm,age 77, is considered to be the most well known woman in the world of recitations of the Qur'aan. The only woman to specialize in the ten qira'aat, and has spent over fifty years granting ijaazas in the ten qira'aat.

      Waves of people could be seen entering and leaving her humble apartment, students who dreamed of memorizing the Qur'aan, comprised of different age groups and both genders.

      Classes for the women and girls would begin from 8 AM until 2 PM after which the classes for men and boys would start until 8 PM. Umm Al-Sa'ad would continue all day with no breaks except for prayer and a light meal to sustain her.

      Umm Al-Sa'ad was born into a poor family in a town called Bandaariya, one of the towns of the larger city Munofiya (north of Cairo). She was afflicted by blindness shortly after her first year and, as was the practice of many in rural areas in dealing with blindness, her family sent her to learn the Qur'aan. She completed her memorization in Alexandria at the age of 15. She then completed the memorization of the ten recitations of the Qur'aan from Shaykha Nafeesah when she had reached the age of 23.

      Umm Al-Sa'ad mentioned that when she had completed her memorization of the qira'aat the number of huffaadh were few. Families used to request from her, as they had requested from her Shaykhah before her, to recite Qur'aan for them at occasions and religious festivals. It was acceptable at that time for a woman to recite the Qur'aan with tajweed in the presence of men who- as she recounted- used to praise her recitation and the beauty of her tajweed. She mentioned however that this practice disappeared after Quranic recitors became widespread, as well as the spread of radios and televisions, and the most that could be done by a female recitor now is to recite at occasions that were female only. She believed that the real reason for this however was the belief that had increased in the recent years that the voice of the woman is awrah.

      She had one of the highest Isnaads (chains of narration) in the world. Her isnaad in the recitation of Hafs from Aasim had 27 Shaykhs in between her and the Messenger of Allah [sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam]. This put her on the same level with well known Shuyukh of recitation such as Shaykh Abdul Basit Hashim and Shaykh Muhammad Abd Alhameed Abdullah.

      Many different types of people would return to her, seeking the completion of the Quran or ijaazah in a Qiraa'ah, from all ages and levels in society. In a day she would teach old and young students, men and women, engineers, doctors, teachers, university professors, college students, high school students, etc.

      She would single out for each student a time, not more than an hour in a day, in which the student would recite what they had memorized and she would correct their mistakes bit by bit, until they memorize the Qur'aan in one of it's qira'aat.

      Umm Al-Sa'ad once commented:

      "Sixty years of memorizing the Qur'aan and it's recitations has made me unable to forget any of it. I can recall every ayah [verse], it's surah [chapter] and its juzz, I know the ayaat [verses] that are similar (mutashabih) and how to recite the same ayah in different qira'aat. I feel like I know the Qur'aan like my name, I cannot imagine forgetting a letter of it or making a mistake in it. I don't know anything other than the Qur'aan and its recitations. I never learned a science, listened to a lecture, or memorized anything other than the Quran and the mutoon that were related to the Quran and tajweed. I don't know anything other than that."

      Her students:

      When asked about her students Umm Al-Sa'ad said:

      "I remember every one of them, there were some who received Ijaaza in one of the recitations, and there were some (and they were very few) who received ijaaza in all ten recitations. They are the ones who receive an ijaaza with a special seal that I have that I always keep with me, I never give it to anyone no matter how much I have trust in them."

      The happiest days for Umm Al-Sa'ad are the days of khatma, when she would grant a student an ijaaza, even though she has experienced this day over 300 times! She keeps a copy of every ijaaza, the most recent one being to a sister in the recitation of Qaloon from Nafi'.

      On the day of khatma, a waleema is normally done, or a tea party with sweets. The student who is receiving the ijaaza normally gives a gift to the Shaykha; a jilbab, a ring, golden earrings, all according to what they can afford. As for the most beautiful gift that the Shaykha received was a Hajj and Umrah trip accompanied with being hosted in Saudia for an entire year! The best part of the trip, after the hajj and umrah, was that she reviewed the Quran, and granted ijaazas in all ten recitations to students from all over the world; Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Sudan, Palestine, Lebanon, Chad, Afghanistan…

      The most beloved of those ijaazas that she granted was to a student from Saudi Arabia who received it when she was seventeen years old!

      The wives of her students become jealous…

      And from the most interesting things that Umm Al-Sa'ad recounts is that some of the wives of her students became jealous and fearful that she might "snatch" their husbands. Especially since their husbands would continually speak about their Shaykha with pride and endearment. To the extent that some of the wives would accompany their husbands to the class to ensure that their fear had no real cause, for the Shaykha was old and blind!

      "And some of the men hesitated to recite to me considering that I'm a woman, and some refused, but Shaykh Muhammad Isma'eel (the most well known shaykh of the Salafi Da'wah in Alexandria) gave a fatwa that they could when he learned of my age, and he sent his entire family to me to recite to me!"

      And what about her marriage?

      When she was asked about the closest student to her, she replied:

      "My husband, Shaykh Muhammad Fareed Nu'man."

      Shaykh Muhammad Fareed, who- before his death some years ago-was the most well known recitor on Alexandria radio. He was also the first one to receive an ijaazah from Umm Al-Sa'ad.

      She said about the story of her marriage,

      "I was not able to keep my promise to my Shaykha Nafeesa. He used to recite to me the Quran in all ten recitations, I became comfortable with him, and he was like me in that he was blind and memorized the Quran at an early age. I taught him for five years, and when he finished he asked me for my hand in marriage and I accepted."

      She was married to him for forty years and had no children.

      But she had students who were huffadh and recitors of the Quran, so all praise is due to Allah.

      She commentated on that saying,

      "Alhamdullilah, I feel like Allah chooses for me the good always. Maybe if I had children I would have become busy with them and neglected the Quran or forgot it."

      Umm Al-Sa'ad Rahimahallah passed away to the Mercy of her Lord in 2006.

      This article has been adapted from :http://ahlalhdeeth.com/vb/showthread.php?t=34855

      You can also listen to what Shaykh Muhammad Ismaa'eel (the one who issued the fatwa) said when she passed away from here: http://www.islamway.com/?iw_s=Lesso...lesson_id=56469

      Sheikh Mishary recites Surah Al-Ikhlaas ten times, each time using a different one of the ten recitation school recognized by Muslim scholars. Each of the ten recitation has an isnaad (narration chain) up to the Prophet PBUH. In addition, these isnaads come through twaatur (i.e. it was related by so many trushworthy people down the isnaad chain to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH.) The recitation differ in the vocalization of few words or letters.

      companionsofquran- Qira'at refers to the various manners of reciting the Qur'an.
      - Each qiraa'a has its own rules of tajweed.
      - In Murattal, it is not necessary to emphasize every vowel in clarity as it is in Mujawwad.
      - Each qira'at is named after the Qari who was famous in reciting in that manner.
      - There are 10 authentic Qira'at. For a qira'at to be authentic there are very detailed rules.

      Here are the ten Qira'at with their famous Qaaris:

      1. Naafi' Al-Madanee. (Madinah)
      Imam Malik recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Qaloon and Warsh.

      2. Ibn Katheer al-Makee. (Makkah)
      Imam Shafi recited in this manner.
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Buzzee and Qumbul.

      3. Abu Amr al-Basri (Basra)
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ad-Doori and As-Soosee.

      4. Ibn Aamir ash-Shami (Syria)
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Hishaam and Ibn Thakwan.

      5. Asim al-Kufi (Koofah)
      Imaam Abu Hanifa recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
      The 2 Qaris who prserved this recitation are Shuba and Hafs

      6. Hamzah Al-Kufi (Koofah)
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Khalaf (who also has his own Qira'at #10) and Khallaad.

      7. Al-Kisaa'ee
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Layth and ad-Doori (same one as before).

      8. Abu Ja'far Al-Madanee (Madinah)
      The two Qaris who preserved this recitation are Isa and Sulayman.

      9. Yaqub ibn Al-Basri (Basra)
      Imam Bukhari recited in this manner.
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ruways and Rooh.

      10. Khalaf (same one who preserved Hamzah's recitation, but this is his own method of reciation)
      The 2 Qaris who preserved this reciation are Ishaq and Idris.

      Today, 95% of the world recites Hafs an Asim, 3% Warsh an Naafi, 7% Qaloon an-Naafi, 3% Ad-Doori an Abu Amr and 1% Ibn 'Aamir.

      Then you also have the 7 types of Ahruf (dialects/modes).

      Here's summat on the 7 Ahruuf (modes/dialects):

      The Ahruuf
      The Qur'an was revealed in seven ahruf, as is proved in many mutawaatir ahadith. This was because different tribes pronounced and spelled words differently. The forms matched the dialects of following seven tribes:

      1. Quraysh
      2. Hudhayl
      3. Thaqîf
      4. Hawâzin
      5. Kinânah
      6. Tamîm
      7. Yemen

      The revelation of the Qur'an in seven different ahruuf made its recitation and memorization much easier for the various tribes. At the same time the Qur'an challenged them to produce a surah like it in their own dialect so that they would not complain about the incomprehensibility.

      Regarding whether or not these ahruuf have been preserved, there are three opinions; the strongest being that of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ash-Shatibee, Ar-Raazi, Ibn Katheer and Ibn Al-Jazaree and many others. They say that when Uthman (radhi Allahu 'anhum) was compiling the Qur'aan, he had Zaib ibn Thabit record it without the vowelation and consonants to accomodate the different Ahruuf. At some points where the ahruuf differed greatly, they recorded it according to the Quraysh dialect. There are 4 benefits which show the Wisdom of Allah (swt) revealing the Qur'aan in seven ahruuf:

      1. To facilitate the memorization of the Qur'aan.
      The arabs did not all speak arabic in the same way. The ahruuf eased the memorization and was significant in the preservation of the Qur'aan.

      2. To prove the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan.
      For despite all the differences, the meaning of the Ahruuf did not contradict one another, but rather were complimentary.

      3. To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), for despite the fact that he was illiterate, the revelation of the Qur'aan occured in different tribal dialects and different words, all of which consisted of the most fluent and eloquent speech of his time.

      4. To honour the ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and show its superiority over all other nations.

      Wallahu Ta'ala A'lam!

      quran-illumunatedThe ten authentic preserved qira’aat are as follows.

      The first seven were preserved by Mujahid and by Imam Shatibi in his famous poem “Ash-Shatibiyyah”. The Qari of each style had his style preserved by two of his students, among whom there would be small variations but not as significant as the variations between the Qira’aat themselves. The Qari had many students but the choice of who preserved them was that of Imam Abu ‘Amar Ad-Daani [Whose tariqa is used in the so called "Pakistani" mus-hafs in the recitation of Hafs 'an Asim] in his famous book “Kitab At-Tayseer fil Qira’aatis Saba”. The name in the square bracket is what the Qira’ah and the Tariqah are more commonly known as.

      1) From the Tabi’een, there was Imam ‘Asim ibn Abi Najood Al-Kufi ['Asim], who was the chief Qari of Kufah, Iraq at the time. Interestingly he was also the Qur’an teacher of Imam Abu Hanifa (rah) who recited in this style. The Qira’ah of Imam ‘Asim was preserved through his two students Shu’ba ibn ‘Iyaash Al-Kufi [Shu'ba] and Abu ‘Amr Hafs ibn Sulaiman Al-Asadi Al-Kufi [The tariqa of Hafs 'an 'Asim is the most prominent recitation used today by over 90% of the Muslim World. We all recite from in this style basically.]

      2) Imaam Naf’i ibn Abdir-Rahman ibni Abi Na’eemil Laythi [Naf'i] from the holy city of Madinah, which recited in his Qira’ah. During his time he was the chief Qari of Madinah and had studied Qur’an from over seventy of the tabi’een. He was the Qur’an teacher of Imam Malik (rah) who recited in the Qira’ah of Nafi’. Imam Nafi’s Qira’ah was preserved through his two students ‘Isa ibn Mina Az-Zarqi [Qaloon] and of course Imam Abu Sa’eed ‘Uthman ibn Sa’eed Al-Misree [Warsh]. The Tariqaan of Imam Nafi’ are recited in many north african countries.

      3) Imaam Abdullah ibn Kathir ibn ‘Umar Al-Makki [Ibn Kathir] of Makkah. He was also amongst the tabi’een and met some of the Companions of the Prophet (saw). His Qira’ah was the Qira’ah of the people of Makkah as well as Imam Shaf’i (rah). Preserved through two of his students Imam Abul Hassan Ahamd ibn Buzzah Al-Makki [Bazzi] and Imam Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Al-Rahman [Qumbul].

      4) Imaam Zabaan ibn Al-’Alaa ibn ‘Ammaar Al-Basree [Abu 'Amr], born in Makkah but moved to Basrah, Iraq where he was the chief reciter. Also studying the Qur’an with many of the Tabi’een. The two students preserving his recitation were Imam Hafs ibn ‘Umar Ad-Doori [Ad-Doori] and Imam Abu Shu’ayb Saalih ibn Ziyad As-Susi [Susi].

      5) Imaam Abdullah ibn ‘Amir Al-Yahsabi ['Ibn 'Amir] of Damascus, Syria. His style was adopted by the people of Syria. He is also the reciter with the least people between him and the Prophet (saw), studying directly under the Sahabi Abu Ad-Darda (ra). His recitation was preserved by two students Imam Hisham ibn ‘Ammaar Ad-Damishqi [Hisham] and Imam Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Zhakwan [Ibn Zakhwan].

      6) Imaam Hamzah ibn Habeeb Al-Kufi of Kufah, Iraq. He also met some of the Companions of the Prophet (saw). Preserved through Imam Khalaf ibn Hisham Al-Baghdadi [Khalaf 'An Hamza] (who also has his own Qira’ah, number 10) and Imam Abu ‘Isa Khallad ibn Khalid Ash-Shaybani [Khallad].

      7) Imaam ‘Ali ibn Hamzah ibn ‘Abdillah also known [Al-Kisaa'ee] from Kufah, Iraq. Preserved through Imam Al-Layth ibn Khalid Al-Baghdadi and [Al-Layth] and the student of Abu’Amr Al-Basree, Imam Hafs ibn ‘Umar Ad-Doori [Ad-Doori].

      8) Imaam Ya’qoob ibn Ishaq Al-Hadrami Al-Basri from Basrah, Iraq. Preserved by Imam Muhammad ibn Muttawakkil [Ruways] and Imam Ruh ibn Abdil Mu’min Al-Basree [Rooh].

      9) Imaam Yazeed ibn Al-Qa’qa’ Al-Makhzoomi [Abu Ja'far al-Madani] from the Tabieen. Also one of the teacher of Imam Naf’i. He was in Madinah, preserved through Imam ‘Isa ibn Wardaan [Wardaan] and Imaam Sulayman ibn Jamaz [ibn Jamaz].

      10) Imaam Khalaf ibn Hisham Al-Baghdadi [Khalaf] from Baghdaad, Iraq who was one of the preservers of the style of Hamzah al-Kufi, also had his Qira’ah. Preserved by Imam Ishaaq ibn ‘Uthmaan [Ishaq] and Imaam Idris ibn ‘Abdil Kareem Al-Baghdadi [Idrees].

      quranpicblueIt was proven that the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “This Qur’aan has been revealed in seven styles, so recite whichever is easiest.” And the scholars said:

      They are close in meaning but different in wording.

      When ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) heard of the differences among the people and Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with him) came to him and said: “Save the people,” he consulted the Companions who were still alive at this time, such as ‘Ali, Talhah, al-Zubayr and others, and they suggested compiling the Qur’aan in one style, so that the people would not differ.

      So he compiled it (may Allaah be pleased with him), and he formed a four-man committee for that task, headed by Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with him). So they compiled the Qur'aan in one style, and copied it and distributed it to the various regions so that the people could rely on it and so as to put an end to disputes.

      With regard to the seven recitations or ten recitations, they are present in what was compiled by ‘Uthmaan, and have to do with adding a letter or omitting a letter, or elongating or shortening a vowel. All of that is included in the one style that ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) compiled. The intention behind that was to preserve the word of Allaah and protect people from differences that could harm them or cause fitnah among them. Allaah has not enjoined reciting it in the seven styles, rather the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “Recite whichever is easiest.” So the people’s agreeing upon one style is a good action for which ‘Uthmaan and the Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) are to be appreciated, because it made things easier for people and prevented a cause of dispute among the Muslims.


      quranpicgreenFirstly :

      The Qur’aan was revealed in one style at the beginning, but the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) kept asking Jibreel until he taught him seven styles, all of which were complete. The evidence for that is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas who narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

      “Jibreel taught me one style and I reviewed it until he taught me more, and I kept asking him for more and he gave me more until finally there were seven styles.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3047; Muslim, 819)

      Secondly, what is meant by "Styles" (ahruf, sing. harf)?

      The best of the scholarly opinions concerning what is meant is that there are seven ways of reciting the Qur’aan, where the wording may differ but the meaning is the same; if there is a different meaning then it is by way of variations on a theme, not opposing and contradiction.


      Some of the scholars said that what was meant by ahruf was the dialects of the Arabs, but this is far-fetched, because of the hadeeth of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab who said:

      “I heard Hishaam ibn Hakeem reciting Soorat al-Furqaan in a manner different from that in which I used to recite it and the way in which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me to recite it.  I was about to argue with him whilst he was praying, but I waited until he finished his prayer, and then I tied his garment around his neck and seized him by it and brought him to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I heard this man reciting Soorat-al-Furqaan in a way different to the way you taught it to me.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, ‘Recite it,’ and he recited it as I had heard him recite it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘It was revealed like this.’ Then he said to me, ‘Recite it,’ so I recited it and he said, ‘It was revealed like this. This Qur'aan has been revealed in seven different ways, so recite it in the way that is easiest for you.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2287; Muslim, 818)

      It is known that Hishaam was Asadi Qurashi (i.e., from the clan of Bani Asad in Quraysh) and ‘Umar was ‘Adawi Qurashi (i.e., from the clan of Bani ‘Adiyy in Quraysh). Both of them were from Quraysh and Quraysh had only one dialect. If the difference in ahruf (styles) had been a difference in dialects, why would two men of Quraysh have been different?

      The scholars mentioned nearly forty different opinions concerning this matter! Perhaps the most correct is that which we have mentioned above. And Allaah knows best.


      It seems that the seven styles were revealed with different wordings, as indicated by the hadeeth of ‘Umar, because ‘Umar’s objection was to the style, not the meaning. The differences between these styles are not the matter of contradiction and opposition, rather they are synonymous, as Ibn Mas’ood said:

      “It is like one of you saying halumma, aqbil or ta’aal (all different ways of saying ‘Come here’).”


      With regard to the seven recitations (al-qiraa’aat al-saba’), this number is not based on the Qur’aan and Sunnah, rather it is the ijtihaad of Ibn Mujaahid (may Allaah have mercy on him). People thought that al-ahruf al-saba’ (the seven styles) were al-qiraa’aat al-saba’ (the seven recitations) because they happened to be the same number. But this number may have come about coincidentally, or it may have been done deliberately by Ibn Mujaahid to match what was narrated about the number of styles (ahruf) being seven. Some people thought that the styles (ahruf) were the recitations, but this is a mistake. No such comment is known among the scholars. The seven recitations are one of the seven styles, and this is the style that ‘Uthmaan chose for all the Muslims.


      When ‘Uthmaan made copies of the Qur’aan, he did so according to one style (harf), but he omitted the dots and vowel points so that some other styles could also be accommodated.  So the Mus-haf that was copied in his time could be read according to other styles, and whatever styles were accommodated by the Mus-haf of ‘Uthmaan remained in use, and the styles that could not be accommodated fell into disuse. The people had started to criticize one another for reciting differently, so ‘Uthmaan united them by giving them one style of the Qur’aan.


      Those who say Mujaahid’s different recitations meant the seven styles (ahruf) is not correct, as was said by Shaykh al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah. (Majmoo’ah al-Fatawa, vol. 13, p. 210)


      The seven readers or reciters were:

      1- Naafi’ al-Madani

      2- Ibn Katheer al-Makki

      3- ‘Aasim al-Kufi

      4- Hamzah al-Zayaat al-Kufi

      5- Al-Kisaa’i al-Kufi

      6- Abu ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ala’ al-Basri

      7- ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Aamir al-Shaami

      • The ones who have the strongest isnaad in recitation are Naafi’ and ‘Aasim.
      • The most eloquent are Abu ‘Amr and al-Kisaa’i.
      • Warsh and Qaaloon narrated from Naafi’.
      • Hafs and Shu’bah narrated from ‘Aasim.

      And Allaah knows best.


      Ibn al-Jazaree says in his poem about acquiring Tajweed:

      And there is no obstacle between it (learning Tajweed) and leaving it,
      Except that a person must exercise his mouth with it!

      Qira'at refers to the various manners of reciting the Qur'an. There are 10 authentic Qira'at. For a qira'at to be authentic there are very detailed rules. Whereas the Qur'an was revealed in seven ahruf, as is proved in many mutawaatir ahadith. This was because different tribes pronounced and spelled words differently.

      This section contains recommended audio/ video recordings for Qur'aan recitation in addition to Tajweed lessons.