flowersniqabWe often hear the noble Hadeeth, “I have never seen anyone with a deficiency of ‘Aql (intellect) and Deen (religion) who are more overpowering to men than one of you [women]” misused by some men who view this Hadeeth to be a form of belittlement towards women. We must first analyse the hadeeth:

It was said: “O Messenger of Allaah, what is the deficiency in her intelligence?” He said, “Isn’t the witness of two women equal to that of one man?”

So it was said, “What is the deficiency in her Deen?” He replied, “Isn’t it the case that if she is menstruating she doesn’t pray or fast?”

Here the Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) clarified that the deficiency of her intellect is from the angle of her weak memory and that her testimony is strengthened with the testimony of another woman. This is because of the importance of the precision of the witness (in Islaam) and because she may forget and make an addition or deletion to the testimony. Just as Allaah, the Almighty says, {And bring forth two witnesses from your own men. If there are not two men (available) then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs then the other can remind her…} (2:282)

As for deficiency in her Deen, then it is because during her state of menstruation and post-partum bleeding, she abandons the Salaat and fasting, and she doesn’t make up the Salaat. This is from the deficiency in her Deen. But this deficiency is not blameworthy upon and for her.

Rather it is a deficiency, which happens as a result of that which Allaah had decreed for her and this was done in a manner of leniency and easiness towards her. For if she were to fast in a state of menstruation or in a state of postpartum bleeding it would harm her. Therefore, from the Mercy of Allaah (towards women) He has legislated for her to abandon the fast at the time when she is menstruating or in a state of Nifaas, and to make up the fast afterwards.

As for the Salaat, then without a doubt, the state of menstruation prevents her from purification. So from the mercy of Allaah, He legislated for her to abandon her prayer and likewise in the state of Nifaas. He also legislated for her not to make it up, because in making up the (Salaat) is difficulty, because the Salaat is tremendous, and repetitious, five times throughout the night and day, and the days of menstruation can be plentiful, sometimes seven or eight days or more than that. As for the Nifaas, then it could reach uptp forty days. So from the mercy of Allaah upon her and from His Ihsaan (doing good) towards her is that He removed the Salaat from her whether it be the initial Salaat or the make-up.

rednikabThis does not necessitate that her intelligence is deficient in everything! Nor that her Deen is deficient in everything! But indeed the Messenger (peace be upon him) clarified that the deficiency in her intelligence is from that which happens to her from the lack of precision in her memory and testimony, and that the deficiency in her Deen is from the fact that she leaves off the prayer and fasting at the time of her menses or in the state of Nifaas. Also this doesn’t necessitate that she is less than a man in everything! or the fact that the man is better in everything! Yes, generally the male gender is better than the gender of the females generally for many reasons. Just as Allaah the High and Sublime says, {Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend their wealth (to support them)…} (4:34)

But she can surpass him, sometimes, in many things. By Allaah! How many women surpass many men in their intelligence, Deen and precision! But, indeed that which is narrated from the Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) is that the women are surpassed by men, generally, in intelligence and in the religion only. There can proceed from her many righteous actions, in which, she can surpass the men and in her Taqwah of Allaah, 'Azza Wa Jall, and in her ranking in the hereafter.

There could be some affairs that she places great importance on and is precise in them more so than the precision of a man. There are many issues, which she carefully considers, and is diligent in memorizing and precise in. She would become the foundation in Islaamic history and point of reference in many affairs and this is clear to those who ponder and reflect on the state of the women during the time of the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and after that.

With this it should be understood that this deficiency should not prevent her from being treated equally in her narrations and in her testimony, if it is strengthened with the testimony of another woman. And it doesn’t necessarily mean that it (this deficiency) should prevent her from having Taqwah of Allaah and the fact that she could be from the most virtuous slaves of Allaah if she is upright in her Deen, even if the fasting and Salaat is not obligatory upon her at the time of menstruation and Nifaas rather this is a deficiency which is specific to the intellect and Deen just as the Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) clarified. It is not appropriate that a believer should accuse her of being deficient in everything and weak in every area of her Deen, and its clarification is pertinent and important so that the speech of the Messenger (peace be upon him) is understood in it’s proper context and in the best possible manner and Allaah knows best.

Reference: Majmoo’ Fatawaa Wa Maqalaat Mutanawi’ah. Vol. 3/292.